entry to the canyons of Mala and Velika Paklenica (Small and Large
Paklenica) are truly a phenomenon due to their geological and hydrological
particularities, the abundant karst, and the wealth of flora and fauna.
The creeks Mala and Velika Paklenica
give great value to the entire region, enriching it, and in the
spring and autumn, the sheer power of the creeks erodes the limestone
walls of the canyons, thus deepening them further every year.
Both the Velika Paklenica Canyon, 14 km long, and Mala Paklenica
Canyon, 12 km long, are deeply cut into the massive south face of
the Velebit mountains.
The geological particularities of the National Park are seen in
the sharp karst formations in the regions of Bojinac, Vidakov kuk
and on the plateau between both canyons. Here, many varying karst
formations are visible, from cracks in the limestone, channels,
basins, fissures and caves, which arose from the intensive activity
of flowing water and from the large temperature differences during
Basins with cracks and channels are particularly well developed
in the Bojinac region, where the karst formations were created during
glaciations, evident in the numerous moraine deposits.
The park boasts some 70 caves, among which the most spectacular
are the Manita Peć cave and the Vodarica pit. Only the Manita Peć
cave is open for viewing.
water impermeable sediments are located under the porous and layers
of carbonate rocks in the extended regions of Velika Paklenica, Brezimenjača
and the source regions of Mala Paklenica and in the temporary flow
of the Orljača River.
As such, there are several constant and temporary rivers
in the Paklenica National Park, and many constant water sources. Sources
of drinking water, renowned for their excellent quality, are Stražbenica,
Kontinovo Vrilo, Crno Vrilo, Velika Močila and Pećica.
The largest sources of Velika Paklenica are the spring Ivine Vodice,
at an altitude of 1200 meters, Kontinovo Vrilo (870 m), Crno Vrilo
(780 m), and Jukića Vrilo (600 m). Above Ramić is the spring Vratrovac,
and the source of the temporary creek Brezimenjača is at about 1000
meters. At the same altitude is the spring Suhe Drage.
The creek Velika Paklenica usually springs in the region above Anića
luka. It flows over its entire course to its mouth at the sea during
the rainy periods in the spring, autumn and winter.
Mala Paklenica springs above Vlaškogradska draga at about 1000 meters
above sea level. The creek has a smaller capacity, and depends heavily
on the season and precipitation. The creek occasionally sinks and
disappears to the creek Orljača, while in the canyon the creek is
active during the rainy autumn and winter seasons and in the early
spring, when at an altitude of 484 m it flows into the rapidly flowing
Orljača, which springs under the slopes of Sveto Brdo.
In the region of Velika Močila, there is the
fenced off spring, Staro Vrilo and several other filter sources. Such
springs are also present at Mala Močila, but only in the damper times
of year. In the peak regions of Velebit, standing waters are the lakes
below Malovan and in Babino Jezero below Babin Vrh.